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This is a modified version of the Internet RFC suitable for machine-translating. Original version is available here: RFC119




Network Working Group                                     M. Krilanovich
Request for Comments: 119                                           UCSB
NIC: 5831                                                 April 21, 1971


                      NETWORK FORTRAN SUBPROGRAMS

Preface

The subroutines described in this document have been implemented at UCSB and make the Network (via the NCP) accessible to Fortran programs executing in the 360/75. They are callable from within any Fortran main program or subroutine compiled at UCSB. A set of assembly-language written subprograms is provided to facilitate the sue of the Network by FORTRAN programmers. They serve as an interface between the user and the Network Control Program (NCP), which supervises all Network operations at this site.

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971

A concept fundamental to FORTRAN Network operations is that of a completion code variable. Associated with each socket that is not in the closed state is a unique variable, called a completion code variable. This variable serves two purposes: it identifies the local socket referenced, and upon completion of the operation it contains a completion code to indicate the outcome of the operation to the programmer. It may be used at any time for any purpose other than network operations. Its value at the beginning of a Network operation is immaterial; rather it is the variable itself that is important. In all Network operations, whenever a completion code variable is called for, the only acceptable type variable is INTERGER*4.

In general, the subprograms will initiate the operation, and enter the WAIT state (consume no CPU time) until notified by the NCP of the completion of the operation. For such operations, the programmer supplies a time limit, of type INTERGER*4, which specifies, in tenths of a second, the maximum length of time the subprogram is to wait for the operation to complete. If this time limit is exceeded, a completion code is supplied to indicate the error; and control is returned to the calling program, with the operation still pending.

In those operations requiring a socket to be specified by its socket identifier, the following format is used. The identifier is specified as a INTEGER*4 array with at least two elements, or an element of such an array. The first element specified is taken to be the site number, and the next element the socket number. A socket number may have any value, positive, negative, or zero. Since negative numbers are represented internally in two's complement form, for the purposes of the gender of a socket, a socket number is even for odd according to whether its absolute value is even or odd, respectively.

Following is a description of each subprogram, its function and calling sequence.

(1) OPEN

By invoking this subprogram, the user requests that the specified local socket be removed from the closed state and thus be prepared to participate in data transfer. There are three distinct operations that can be performed by this subprogram, and these are described below:

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971
(A) CONNECT

By initiating this operation, the user requests that the specified local socket be logically connected to the specified foreign socket, and that data transfer between the two sockets be enabled. The subprogram will wait until the foreign socket either accepts or rejects the connection attempt. This operation is valid only when the local socket is in the closed state.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL OPEN (cmpcd, time, lclsck, fgnsck, ws)

where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable to be associated
with the local socket.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for the completion of the operation.

'lclsck' is the socket identifier of the local socket.

'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the foreign socket.

'ws' is a workspace, which as the same attributes as a socket identifier, and, if the operation is successful, will become associated with the local socket for the life of the connection. In response to certain future operations, information may be returned to the programmer in this workspace.

The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, The operation was successful and the connection
has been established

4, The specified completion code variable is
already assigned to a socket; the operation was suppressed

8, The specified local socket is not in the closed
state; the operation was suppressed

12, All communication paths to the specified foreign
site are in use; the operation was suppressed

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971
16, Local resources are insufficient to support
another connection; the operation was suppressed

20, The connection attempt was rejected by the
foreign process

24, The specified local socket is not local to UCSB;
the operation was suppressed

28, The specified foreign site is invalid; the
operation was suppressed

32, An addressing or protection exception was
encountered with respect to the specified workspace; the operation was suppressed

36, Either hardware at the foreign site is
inoperative or the NCP's counterpart at the foreign site does not exist or has failed

40, Local and foreign sockets are both either send
or receive sockets; the operation was suppressed

44, By operator command, all Network operations were
terminated; the socket will be closed

60, An NCP control transmission error occurred; the
operation was suppressed

252, The specified time limit was exceeded; the
operation was initiated but not completed

(B) LISTEN

This operation is a request for notification of any connection attempt directed toward the specified local socket. The subprogram waits until such a call is received, at which time the calling processes' socket identifier is returned to the calling program. This operation is valid only when the designated local socket is in the closed state.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL OPEN (cmpcd, time, lclsck, ws)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable to be associated
with the local socket.

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971
'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for the completion of the operation.

'lclsck' is the socket identifier of the local socket.

'ws' is a workspace which, if the operation is successful, will contain the socket identifier of the calling socket, and will become associated with the local socket for the life of the connection. 'ws' has the same attributes as a socket identifier.

The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, The operation was successful and a call has been
received

4, The specified completion code variable is
already assigned to a socket; the operation was suppressed

8, The specified local socket is not in the closed
state; the operation was suppressed

12, Local resources are insufficient to support
another connection; the operation was suppressed

16, The specified local socket is not local to UCSB;
the operation was suppressed

20, An addressing or protection exception was
encountered with respect to the specified workspace; the operation was suppressed

44, By operator command, all Network operations were
terminated; the socket will be closed

252, The specified time limit was exceeded; the
operation was initiated but not completed

(C) ACCEPT

This operation accepts connection with the foreign socket whose call caused successful completion of a previous LISTEN operation by the specified local socket. After completion of this operation, data may be transferred to or from the local socket, depending on its gender. This operation is valid only when the last operation referencing the local socket was a LISTEN operation. The subprogram will wait until the operation is completed.


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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971



The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL OPEN (cmpcd, time)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with the local socket by a previous LISTEN operation.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait for the completion of the operation

The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, The operation was successful, and the connection
is established

4, The specified local socket is in the closed
state 9The NCP may have received an abort notification from the foreign process); the operation was suppressed

8, the previous operation specifying the designated
local socket was not a LISTEN; the operation was suppressed

12, All communication paths to the specified foreign
site are in use; the socket has been returned to the closed state

252, the specified time limit was exceeded; the
operation was initiated but not completed

(2) CLOSE

This operation is a request that the specified local socket be returned to the closed state. If the last operation involving this socket was a LISTEN, this operation refuses the foreign process' connection attempt. If the last operation was CONNECT, the attempt is aborted. If a connection is established, any data in transit from the local socket is allowed to reach the foreign socket to be either received or flushed before the local socket is closed. The subprogram will wait until the socket has been returned to the closed state.


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The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL CLOSE (cmpcd, time)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for the completion of the operation.

The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, the operation was successful, and the socket has
been returned to the closed state

8, The specified completion code variable is not
currently assigned to a socket; the operation was suppressed

12, The specified local socket is in the process of
being closed; the operation was suppressed, but the local socket will be closed

36, Either hardware at the foreign site is
inoperative, or the NCP's counterpart at the foreign site does not exist or has failed

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971
44, By operator command, all Network operations were
terminated; the socket will be closed

60, An NCP control transmission error occurred; the
operation was aborted

64, A transmission error occurred; the operation was
aborted, but the socket will be closed

252, The specified time limit was exceeded; the
operation was initiated but not completed

3) SEND

This program causes data to be sent to the foreign socket. The subprogram will wait until the data has been received by the foreign socket, or until it has been queued locally by the NCP.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL WRITE (cmpcd, bfr, len, time [,offset])

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'bfr' is the data to be sent, and can be of any type,
any length.

'len' is the number of bits of data to be sent. If
'len' is non-positive, no operation is performed. 'len' is of type INTEGER*4.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for the completion of the operation.

'offset' is the bit offset from the first bit of 'bfr'
at which data transmission is to begin, and is of type INTEGER*4. If not specified, 'offset' defaults to zero.

The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, The operation was successful, and the data has
been sent

4, The specified local socket is not a send socket;
the operation was suppressed


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8, The specified completion code variable is not
assigned to a socket; the operation was suppressed

12, A previous send operation is in progress; the
operation was suppressed

16, The connection is not fully open; the operation
was suppressed

20, The foreign socket terminated the connection
before completion of the send operation; not all the data was transmitted

36, Either hardware at the foreign site is
inoperative, or the NCP's counterpart at the foreign site does not exist or has failed

44, By operator command, all Network operations were
terminated; the socket will be closed

52, One or more interrupts were received from the
foreign socket; the operation was suppressed

56, An addressing exception was encountered with
respect to the data buffer; the operation was suppressed

60, An NCP control transmission error occurred; the
operation was aborted and the socket will be closed

64, A transmission error occurred; the operation was
aborted and the socket will be closed

252, The specified time limit was exceeded; the
operation was initiated but not completed

4) RECEIVE

This operation causes data to be received from the foreign socket. The subprogram will wait until the reception of data is complete.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL READ (cmpcd, bfr, len, time [,offset])



Krilanovich                                                     [Page 9]


RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'bfr' is the variable into which the data is to be
placed, and can be of any type, any length.

'len' is the number of bits of data to be received. If
'len' is non-positive, no operation is performed. 'len' is of type INTEGER*4.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for the completion of the operation.

'offset' is the bit offset from the first bit of 'bfr'
at which the first bit of data is to be placed, and is of type INTEGER*4. If not specified, the 'offset' defaults to zero.

The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, The operation was successful and the data has
been received

4, The specified local socket is not a receive
socket; the operation was suppressed

8, The specified completion code variable is not
assigned to a socket; the operation was suppressed

12, A previous receive operation is in process; the
operation was suppressed

16, The connection is not fully open; the operation
was suppressed

20, The foreign socket terminated the connection
before completion of the receive operation; data is unpredictable

24, An addressing or protection exception was
encountered with respect to the data buffer; the operation was suppressed

36, Either hardware at the foreign site is
inoperative, or the NCP's counterpart at the foreign site does not exist or has failed


Krilanovich                                                    [Page 10]


RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


44, By operator command, all network operations were
terminated; the socket will be closed

52, One or more interrupts were received from the
foreign socket; the operation was suppressed

60, An NCP control transmission error occurred; the
operation was suppressed and the socket will be closed

252, the specified time limit was exceeded; the
operation was initiated but not completed

5) CHECK

This operation causes the status of the specified local socket to be returned. There is no completion code variable associated with this operation, since it is always successful and the socket is identified by its socket number. This operation is valid at any time and is always completed immediately.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL CHECK (lclsck, stat, menu, fgnsck, deficit)

Where
'lclsck' is the socket identifier of the local socket.

'stat' is a code for the status, and is of type
INTEGER*4.

'mnem' is a mnemonic for the status, and can be of any
type, of any length greater than or equal to eight bytes.

'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the foreign socket,
or zero.

'deficit' is the send/receive deficit in bits, or zero,
and is to type INTEGER*4.

'lclsck' is the only argument the programmer need
define; the others are output from the subprogram.

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971
   'STAT'    'MNEM'         MEANING
   ------    ------         ---------
     0        OPEN         A connection is fully established. No
SEND/RECEIVE operation is in progress.
'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the
connected socket. 'deficit' is the number of bites queued locally at the socket by the NCP and available to satisfy a future RECEIVE operation, or awaiting output ads the results of a previous SEND operation.

1 LISTEN A LISTEN has been issued.

2 CONNECT A CONNECT has been issued. 'fgnsck' is the
socket identifier of the foreign socket.

3 DECISION A LISTEN has been completed. 'fgnsck' is
the socket identifier of the calling socket.

4 CALL(S) One or more calls have been received for the
local socket. No LISTEN or CONNECT has been issued.

5 I/O A connection is fully established. A
SEND/RECEIVE operation is in progress.
'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the
connected socket. 'deficit' is the number of bits yet to be sent or received.

6 CLOSED The socket is in the closed state.

7 <--DRAIN The foreign socket is attempting to close the connection. The NCP has data yet to be ready by the local socket. 'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the connected socket.
'deficit' is the number of bits yet to be
received.

8 DRAINED The foreign socket is attempting to close the
connection. The NCP is awaiting arrival at the foreign site of data currently in transit. 'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the connected socket.

9 CLOSING The local socket has issued a CLOSE. The NCP
is in the process of returning the local socket to the closed state. 'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the connected socket.


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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


10 DRAIN--> The local socket has issued a CLOSE. The NCP
is completing the last SEND operation before returning the local socket to the closed state. 'fgnsck' is the socket identifier of the connected socket. 'deficit' is the number of bits the NCP has yet to transmit.

(6) IDENTIFY

This operation is used to identify a local socket by its completion code variable. The operation is valid at any time, and is always completed immediately. Since it is always successful, there are no completion codes for the operation, and the contents of the completion code variable are not changed.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL ID (cmpcd, lclsck)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'lclsck' is set to the socket identifier of the local
socket if the completion code variable is associated with a socket, or to zero otherwise.

(7) SIGNAL

This operation is used to convey a signal to the foreign process. The significance of the signal is completely user-dependent. The effect is that the next time the foreign socket attempts to initiate a RECEIVE or SEND operation, the operation will be suppressed, and a completion code supplied indicating that a signal had been received. The subprogram will wait until the signal has been sent to the foreign NCP. This operation is valid only when the socket is fully open.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL SIGNAL (cmpcd, time)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for completion of the operation.


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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


The following completion codes are possible for this operation:

0, The operation was successful, and the signal has
been sent

4, The specified completion code variable is not
assigned to a socket; the operation was suppressed

8, The connection is not fully open; the operation
was suppressed

Certain of the Network subprograms are intended for, although not restricted to, use with the Online System Network operators. The following is a general description of these operators:

In all Network operations involving the Online System Network operators, there are certain conventions concerning the format of the data sent and received. The data is grouped in 'messages' consisting of three fields, op code, length, and text, in that order. The op code is one byte in length and is a code which indicates how the text field is to be interpreted. The length field is two bytes long, and gives the length, in bits, of the text fields, which contains the actual data. (The op code and length fields together are termed a header.) The following op codes are presently defined:

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971

Op Code Meaning

0 This op code is a NOP. No text field exists, and the
contents of the length field are unpredictable. (This op code is used mainly as a delimiter.)

1 The text field contains EBCDIC characters, one
character per byte. The Online System operators consider the characters as intended for display as soon as the text field has been received.

2 The text contains codes for keypushes, one byte per
key. The Online operators consider the keys as intended for execution as soon as the text field has been received.

3 The same as for an op code of 2, except that the Online
operators consider that the execution of the keys will be delayed until all data for that receive operations has been received.

The standard format of data sent or received by the Online System operators is a string of messages, with the last message indicated by a header with a NOP op code, called a trailer. These conventions are the default situation; any of them may be overridden by appropriate programming.

Following are descriptions of those subprograms intended for use the Online System operators.

(8) WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE

This subprogram causes data, assumed to be characters represented by their EBCDIC codes, to be sent from the specified local socket. The characters are sent in a standard message, preceded by a header, and optionally followed by a trailer. The subprogram waits for the data to be received by the foreign socket, or to be queued locally by the NCP. This operation is valid only when the local socket is a send socket, and is fully open.

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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971
The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL WTOLC (cmpcd, bfr, len, level, across, down, time)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'bfr' is the character string to be sent, and can be of
any type, any length.

'len' in absolute value, is the number of characters to
be sent. If 'len' is positive or zero, the end of the data is indicated by a trailer; if 'len' is negative, no trailer is sent. 'len' is of type INTEGER*4.

'level' indicates the mode of typing. The absolute
value of 'level', if non-zero, is the shift level on which to type, and must be less than or equal to nine. If greater than nine, one is sued. If 'level' is positive, 'across' and 'down' are relative to the current typing location. If 'level' is negative, the carriage is positioned to the upper left-hand corner before typing begins, thus making 'across' and 'down' absolute coordinates. If 'level' is zero, the tying is in case one characters, and a carriage return precedes the positioning for 'across' and 'sown.' If the characters to be displayed are case one characters, the header sent will have an op code which indicates characters to be displayed as soon as they are received; otherwise, the op code will indicate buttons to be executed as soon as received. 'level' is of type INTEGER*4.

'across' is the number of spaces to be moved
horizontally across the display tube before beginning to type. 'across' can have any value, positive, negative, or zero, and is type INTEGER*4.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for completion of the operation.

The completion codes for this operation are the same as for SEND.




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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


(9) READ FROM ONLINE CONSOLE

This subprogram receives data, assumed to be characters represented by their EBCDIC codes, from the foreign socket in one or more standard messages. The subprogram will wait for the data, optionally followed by a trailer, to be received by the local socket. This operation is valid only when the local socket is a receive socket and is fully open.

The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL RFOLC (cmpcd, bfr, len, time)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'bfr' is the variable into which the data is to be
placed, and can be of any type, any length.

'len', in absolute value, is the maximum number of
characters to be placed in 'bfr'. If the length fields of the head(s) received total more data than 'len', the excess data will be received, but will not placed into 'brf', and will not be accessible to the program. If 'len' is positive or zero, data will be received until a trailer is encountered. If 'len' is negative, a single message, exclusive of trailer, will be received. 'len' is of type INTEGER*4.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for completion of the operation.

The completion codes for this operation are the same as for RECEIVE.

(10) WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE WITH REPLY

This subprogram combines the functions of 'WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE' and 'READ FROM ONLINE CONSOLE'. The subprogram first sends a string of data to the foreign socket form the specified send socket, waits for it to be received by the foreign socket (or queued locally by the NCP), and then waits for a reply directed toward the specified receive socket. The operation is valid only when the sockets have the correct gender and both are fully open.



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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


The calling sequence is as follows:

CALL WTOLCR (cmpcd, bfr, len, level, across, down, time, cmpcd2, bfr2, len2)

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local send socket.

'bfr' is as in 'WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE'.

'len' is as in 'WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE'.

'level' is an in 'WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE'.

'across' as in 'WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE'.

'down' is as in 'WRITE TO ONLINE CONSOLE'.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait for completion, individually, of the transmission and reception of data.

'cmpcd2' is the completion code variable associated with
the local receive socket.

'brf2' is as 'bfr' in 'READ FROM ONLINE CONSOLE'.

'len2' is as 'len' in 'READ FROM ONLINE CONSOLE'.

The completion codes for the send socket are the same as for the SEND operation, and the completion codes for the receive socket are the same as for the RECEIVE operation.

(11) ERASE

This subprogram cause data constituting on Online System command to erase the display tube to be sent from the specified local socket. The data is sent in a single standard message, including an op code indicating characters to be displayed as they are received, and optionally including a trailer. The subprogram waits for the data to be received by the foreign socket, or to be queued locally by the NCP. This operation is valid only when the local socket is a send socket, and is fully open.

The calling sequence is as follows:



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RFC 119               Network Fortran Subprograms         April 21, 1971


CALL ERASE ('cmpcd', 'delay1', 'delay2', 'time')

Where
'cmpcd' is the completion code variable associated with
the local socket.

'delay1', in absolute value, is the length of time, in
tenths of a second, the subprogram is to pause (in the WAIT state) before sending the erase. If 'delay1' is positive or zero, a trailer will be sent after the erase; if negative, no trailer will be sent. 'delay1' is of type INTEGER*4.

'delay2' is the length of time, in tenths of a second,
the subprogram is to pause after sending the erase and before returning control to the calling program, and is of type INTEGER*4.

'time' is the length of time the subprogram is to wait
for completion of the operation.

The completion codes for this operation are the same as for SEND.




























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